Careful handling of data. Making information security part of standard operating procedures. New techniques. New way of working. Combining forces with the marketplace and science. Start-ups and other creative collaborations. International appreciation for Dutch innovation. Stimulate the digital government. The Netherlands goes digital. Great opportunities. Invest in research. Train government staff in digital skills. Frontrunner in new digital technologies.
Offer protection. Citizens and businesses in focus. Everyone must be able to use digital services. Safe and intelligible. Digital Government Act proposal. The legal age of prostitutes was raised from 18 to 21 in , and rules went into effect in to shut down coffeeshops operating near schools. The goal fierce critic of Islam, is to clean up the Red on immigration is murdered, touching immigrants except and integration, is off intense debate over from countries with Light District and assassinated.
The the limits of Dutch pre-existing treaties close prostitution ruling Dutch parties multicultural society.
Subse- ters: Princess quent elections saw Prime Minister Mark Rutte retain the position of de-facto head of government and form a new coalition government with Catharina-Amalia his liberal VVD party and the centre-left Labour party. The latter is the the Princess of faction of Amsterdam mayor Eberhard van der Laan, who has been in Orange , Princess the job since She abdicated in the Royal Palace in favour of her eldest son Willem-Alexander, who became king on 30 April His investiture took place in the Nieuwe Kerk.
He is the first male to accede to the Dutch throne since He is acquitted of all WWII. Un- derstanding these quintessential Dutch artists requires a journey back into history. Paintings of the Flemish School featured biblical and allegori- was the only cal subject matter popular with the Church, the court and to a lesser woman registered extent the nobility, who, after all, paid the bills and called the shots.
Pieter fluid portraits.
Although the artists of the day never achieved the level of The Rijksmuseum recognition of their Flemish counterparts, the Dutch School, as it came has some of her to be called, was known for favouring realism over allegory. Haarlem, just west of Amsterdam, was the centre of this movement, with artists works. Painters in the city of Utrecht were famous for using chiaroscuro deep contrast of light and shade , a technique associated with the Italian master Caravaggio. The key: they had to be pictures the buyers could relate to.
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Painters became entrepreneurs in their own right, churning out ba- nal works, copies and masterpieces in factory-like studios. Paintings www. Soon the wealthiest households were covered in paintings from top to bottom. Foreign visitors commented that even bakeries and butcher shops seemed to have a painting or two on the wall. Most painters spe- cialised in one of the main genres of the day. There Rembrandt set up his own studio, with staff who worked in a warehouse in the Jordaan.
He was a master manipulator, and not only of images: the painter was also known to have his own pictures bid up at auctions. He often sketched and painted for himself, urging his staff to do likewise.
Residents of the surrounding Jewish quarter provided perfect material for his dramatic biblical scenes. Each subject had paid guilders, and some were unhappy at being shoved to the background. In response, Rembrandt told them museum where they could shove their complaints. Suddenly he received far fewer Wedding Portrait orders. His house and rich art collection were sold and he moved to museum the Rozengracht in the Jordaan.
He also received the occasional commission, including the monumental Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis for the city hall, although authorities disliked it and had it removed. No longer constrained by the wishes of clients, he enjoyed new- found freedom. His works became more unconventional, yet showed an ever-stronger empathy with their subject matter, as in The Jewish Bride The many portraits of his son, Titus, and Hendrickje, and his ever-gloomier self-portraits, are among the most stirring in the his- tory of art.
A plague epidemic between and killed one in seven Am- sterdammers, including Hendrickje.
Titus died in , aged 27 and just married; Rembrandt died a year later, a broken man. He devoted most of his career to portraits, dabbling in occasional genre scenes with dramatic chia- Kitchen Maid roscuro.
Both masters used the same expressive, unpolished brush strokes and their museum styles went from bright exuberance in their early careers to dark and Woman in Blue solemn later on. The museum is a space that Hals knew intimately; he lived in the almshouse. He produced only 35 meticu- light pouring lously crafted paintings in his career and died poor with 10 children; through tall win- his baker accepted two paintings from his wife as payment for a debt of dows.
The calm, more than guilders. Yet Vermeer mastered genre painting like no spiritual effect is other artist. His paintings include historical and biblical scenes from enhanced by dark his earlier career, his famous View of Delft in the Mauritshuis in blues, deep reds, Den Haag, and some tender portraits of unknown women, such as the stunningly beautiful Girl with a Pearl Earring c , also hanging in warm yellows the Mauritshuis. Good in the Rijksmuseum.
Around the middle of the century, the focus on mood and subtle play of light began to make way for the splendour of the baroque. Note that Cuyp, Hobbema and Van Ruysdael also a tavern all have main streets named after them in the Old South and De Pijp keeper, and his districts, and many smaller streets here are named after other Dutch depictions of artists.
The economy Five collapsed and the market for paintings went south with it. In the 18th century they copied French styles, pandering to Wheatfield with the fashion for anything French.
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Crows Self Portrait The results were competent, but not groundbreaking. They appear to have inspired French Impressionists, many of whom visited Amsterdam. Jongkind and Breitner reinvented 17th-century realism and influ- enced the Hague School of the last decades of the 19th century.
A forerunner of expressionism? Even today, he epitomises the epic struggle of the artist: the wrenching poverty; the lack of public acclaim; survived. But his short life continues to influence Vincent van Gogh, art to this day. Van Gogh moved south to Arles, Provence, in Revelling in its It contains all intense light and bright colours, he painted sunflowers, irises and other letters to and vivid subjects with a burning fervour. While there, Theo sent him a positive French newspaper cri- tique of his work.
Van Gogh died two days later with Theo at his side.
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Theo melancholic subsequently had a breakdown, was also committed, and succumbed beauty that his to physical illness. He died, aged 33, just six months after Van Gogh. De Stijl The Style , also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch design movement that aimed to harmonise all the arts by bringing artistic expressions back to their essence.
His drawings, lithographs and ist Christian woodcuts of blatantly impossible images continue to fascinate math- Nicolai Mustad ematicians: a waterfall feeds itself; people go up and down a staircase bought Sunset that ends where it starts; a pair of hands draw each other.
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