He returned to northern Germania in AD 7 or 8, where the Roman Empire had established secure control of the territories just east of the Rhine , along the Lippe and Main rivers, and was now seeking to extend its hegemony eastward to the Weser and Elbe rivers, under Publius Quinctilius Varus , a high-ranking administrative official appointed by Augustus as governor. Arminius began plotting to unite various Germanic tribes in order to thwart Roman efforts to incorporate their lands into the empire. This proved a difficult task, as the tribes were strongly independent and many were traditionally enemies of each other.
Between AD 6 and 9, the Romans were forced to move eight of the eleven legions present in Germania east of the Rhine to crush a rebellion in the Balkans ,  leaving Varus with only three legions to face the Germans. An additional two legions, under the command of Lucius Nonius Asprenas , were stationed in Moguntiacum.
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In the autumn of AD 9, the year-old Arminius brought to Varus a false report of rebellion in northern Germany. He persuaded Varus to divert the three legions under his command composed of the 17th , 18th , and 19th legions , plus three cavalry detachments and six cohorts of auxiliaries , which were at the time marching to winter quarters, to suppress the rebellion. Varus and his legions marched right into the trap that Arminius had set for them near Kalkriese.
Arminius' tribe, the Cherusci , and their allies the Marsi , Chatti , Bructeri , Chauci , and Sicambri five out of at least fifty Germanic tribes at the time  ambushed and annihilated Varus' entire army, totaling over 20, men, as it marched along a narrow road through a dense forest. When defeat was certain, Varus committed suicide by falling on his sword.
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The battle was one of the most devastating defeats Rome suffered in its history. Arminius' success in destroying three entire legions and driving the Romans out of Germany marked a high point of Germanic power for centuries. Roman attempts to reconquer Germania failed, although they did eventually manage to break Arminius' carefully coordinated alliance. After the battle, the Germans quickly annihilated every trace of Roman presence east of the Rhine. Roman settlements such as the Waldgirmes Forum were abandoned. The vastly outnumbered Roman garrison of Aliso present-day Haltern am See , under the command of the prefect Lucius Cedicius, inflicted heavy losses on the Germans before retreating into Gaul , resisting long enough for Lucius Nonius Asprenas to organize the Roman defense on the Rhine and Tiberius to arrive with a new army.
This prevented Arminius from crossing the Rhine and invading Gaul. Between AD 14 and 16, Germanicus led punitive operations into Germany, fighting Arminius to a draw in the Battle at Pontes Longi and twice defeating him according to Tacitus : first in the Battle of Idistaviso and later at the Battle of the Angrivarian Wall. In AD 15, Roman troops managed to recapture one of the three legionary eagles lost in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
In AD 16, a second eagle was retrieved. Instead, he offered Germanicus the honor of a triumph for his two victories.
With the end of the Roman threat, a war broke out between Arminius and Marbod , king of the Marcomanni. It ended with Marbod fleeing to Ravenna and Roman protection, but Arminius failed to break into the "natural fortification" of Bohemia , and the war ended in stalemate. In AD 19, Germanicus died in Antioch under circumstances which led many to believe he had been poisoned by his opponents.
Arminius died two years later, in AD 21, murdered by opponents within his own tribe who felt that he was becoming too powerful. Arminius married a princess named Thusnelda , whose name is preserved only by Strabo. She was captured by the Romans while pregnant, so her son Thumelicus grew up in Roman captivity. Tacitus describes him as having an unusual story, which the historian promises to tell, but this part of Tacitus' writings has since been lost. Arminius' victory against the Roman legions in the Teutoburg Forest had a far-reaching effect on the subsequent history of both the ancient Germanic peoples and on the Roman Empire.
The Romans made no further concerted efforts to conquer and permanently hold Germania beyond the Rhine and the Agri Decumates. Numerous modern historians have regarded Arminius' victory as "Rome's greatest defeat"  and one of the most decisive battles in history. In the accounts of his Roman enemies, Arminius is highly regarded for his military leadership and as a defender of the liberty of his people.
Based on these records, the story of Arminius was revived in the 16th century with the recovery of the histories of Tacitus , who wrote in his Annales II, 88 :. Arminius, without doubt Germania's liberator, who challenged the Roman people not in its beginnings like other kings and leaders, but in the peak of its empire; in battles with changing success, undefeated in the war. Arminius was not the only reason for Rome's change of policy towards Germania.
Politics also played a factor; emperors found they could rarely trust a large army to a potential rival, though Augustus had enough loyal family members to wage his wars. Also, Augustus, in his year reign, had annexed many territories still at the beginning of the process of Romanization.
Tiberius, who succeeded Augustus in AD 14, decided that Germania was a far less developed land, possessing few villages and only a small food surplus, and therefore was not currently important to Rome. Conquering Germania would require a commitment too burdensome for the imperial finances and an excessive expenditure of military force. Modern scholars have pointed out that the Rhine was a more practical boundary for the Roman Empire than any other river in Germania.
Armies on the Elbe , however, would had to have been supplied by extensive overland routes or by ships travelling the hazardous Atlantic. Economically, the Rhine already had towns and sizable villages at the time of the Gallic conquest. The Rhine was significantly more accessible from Rome and better equipped to supply sizable garrisons than the regions beyond.
Rome chose no longer to rule directly in Germania east of the Rhine and north of the Danube , instead preferring to exert indirect influence by appointing client kings , which was cheaper than military campaigns. Italicus , nephew of Arminius, was appointed king of the Cherusci; Vangio and Sido became vassal princes of the powerful Suebi , etc. Many emigrated to the United States ; the groundwork of the uprising was laid as early as the Hambacher Fest of , when public unrest began to grow in the face of heavy taxation and political censorship.
The Hambacher Fest is noteworthy for the Republicans adopting the black-red-gold colours used on today's national flag of Germany as a symbol of the Republican movement and of the unity among the German-speaking people. Activism for liberal reforms spread through many of the German states, each of which had distinct revolutions, they were inspired by the street demonstrations of workers and artisans led in Paris , from February 22 through 24, , which resulted in the abdication by King Louis-Philippe of France and his exile in Britain.
In France the revolution of became known as the February Revolution ; the revolutions spread from France across Europe. This resulted in the resignation of Prince von Metternich as chief minister to Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria , his going into exile in Britain; because of the date of the Vienna demonstrations, the revolutions in Germany are called the March Revolution.
Fearing the fate of Louis-Philippe, some monarchs in Germany accepted some of the demands of the revolutionaries, at least temporarily. In the south and west, large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations took place. They demanded freedom of the press , freedom of assembly, written constitutions, arming of the people, a parliament.
In , Austria was the predominant German state, it was considered the successor to the Holy Roman Empire, dissolved by Napoleon in , was not resurrected by the Congress of Vienna in German Austrian chancellor Klemens von Metternich had dominated Austrian politics from until On March 13, university students mounted a large street demonstration in Vienna, it was covered by the press across the German-speaking states. The student demonstrators demanded a constitution and a constituent assembly elected by universal male suffrage.takomarova.ru/wp-content/193/ken-poznakomitsya-s.php
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Emperor Ferdinand and his chief advisor Metternich directed troops to crush the demonstration; when demonstrators moved to the streets near the palace, the troops fired on the students, killing several. The new working class of Vienna joined the student demonstrations; the Diet of Lower Austria demanded Metternich's resignation. With no forces rallying to Metternich's defense, Ferdinand reluctantly dismissed him; the former chancellor went into exile in London. Ferdinand appointed new, nominally liberal, ministers; the Austrian government drafted a constitution in late April The people rejected this; the citizens of Vienna returned to the streets from May 26 through 27, , erecting barricades to prepare for an army offense.
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Ferdinand and his family fled to Innsbruck , where they spent the next few months surrounded by the loyal peasantry of the Tyrol. Ferdinand issued two manifestos on May 16, and June 3, , which gave concessions to the people. He converted the Imperial Diet into a Constituent Assembly to be elected by the people. Other concessions were less substantial, addressed the reorganizing and unification of Germany. Ferdinand returned to Vienna from Innsbruck on August 12, Soon after his return, the working-class populace hit the streets again on August 21, to protest high unemployment and the government's decree to reduce wages.
On August 23, , Austrian troops shot several. On September 29, the Austrian troops were defeated by the Hungarian revolutionary forces. On October 6 through 7, , the citizens of Vienna had demonstrated against the emperor's actions against forces in Hungary; as a result, Emperor Ferdinand I fled Vienna on October 7, , taking up residence in the fortress town of Olomouc in Moravia. On December 2, , Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his nephew Franz Joseph. Baden had a liberal constitution from until reaction resulted in aristocratic rulers revoking the. Cherusci The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany , in the area near present-day Hanover , during the first centuries BC and AD.
Ethnically, Pliny the Elder groups them with their neighbours, the Suebi and Chatti , as well as the Hermunduri , as Hermiones , one of the Germanic groupings said to descend from an ancestor named Mannus , they led an important war against the Roman Empire. Subsequently, they were absorbed into the late classical Germanic tribal groups such as the Saxons , Franks and Allemanni ; the etymological origin of the name Cherusci is not known with certainty. Hans Kuhn has argued that the derivational suffix -sk-, involved in both explanations, is otherwise not common in Germanic.
He suggested that the name may therefore be a compound of non-Germanic origin, connected to the hypothesized Nordwestblock.
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