The Daughters are placed in the next four houses in order on the same row as the Mothers.
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After the eight matres and filiae are formed, the four nepotes or Nieces are formed by adding those pairs of figures that rest above the houses of the respective Niece. Therefore, the first and second Mothers add to form the first Niece, the third and fourth Mothers add to form the second Niece, and so on. Here, addition involves summing the points in the respective lines of the parents: if the sum is an even number, then the resulting figure's line will have two points, and if the sum is odd then the line will have one point.
Conceptually, this is the same procedure in mathematical logic as the exclusive or , where a line with two points is used instead of "false" and a line with one point instead of "true". From the four nepotes , the two testes or Witnesses are formed in the same manner as the nepotes : the first and second Nieces form the Right Witness, and the third and fourth Nieces form the Left Witness.
From the Witnesses, using the same addition process, the iudex , or Judge, is formed. A sixteenth figure, the Reconciler or superiudex , is also generated by adding the Judge and the First Mother, although this has become seen as extraneous and a "backup figure" in recent times. The shield chart most likely provided an early visual guide to generating the figures, and the interpreted answer would center on the fifteenth and sixteenth figures, the Judge and Reconciler.
Skilled geomancers observe the whole chart, interpreting among other things meanings of the figures based on where they place in the chart, the numerical significance of the total points, and the similarities produced by added figures. Generally, the Judge represents the answer to the question, the Right Witness describes the querent's side of the query, the Left Witness represents the quesited's side, and the Reconciler represents the effect of the outcome or Judge upon the querent. The skilled geomancer can deduce root causes to the situation, hidden influences, the outcome and its aftermath, and general trends and events in the querent's life through interpreting the chart.
One division of the shield chart for interpretation involves triplets of the figures called triplicities. They can be interpreted in a manner similar to the Witnesses and Judge, in that the right parent represents the past, the child the present, and the left parent the future; another way to interpret such a triplet views the right parent as the querent's side, allies, resources, and opinions, the left parent as the quesited's side, and the child as the interaction of the two sides.
Another method of evaluating a geomantic chart involves taking the total sum of all points from 16 figures within the shield chart. In order to evaluate how quickly the queried situation would resolve, Pietro d'Abano suggested that the total sum be compared to the sum of all points in the sixteen geomantic figures , which is If the sum is less than 96, then it will resolve quickly, and in a degree proportional to the difference between 96 and the total. Conversely, if the sum is more than 96, then it will resolve slowly.
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European geomancers provided an alternate method of interpreting the figures through the house chart, which feature the twelve astrological houses. Here, they assign the figures from the shield chart to the houses in the house chart; the order used differs between different circles of occultists.
While European geomancers still used the shield chart to generate the figures and provide most answers, they augmented geomancy with astrological techniques in the house chart. Based upon the query, they could provide a deeper insight into the querent's life, factors shaping the query itself, and the extent of the situations involved. They took note when several houses shared the same figure; as this figure passes from one house to the next, it generally indicates that the same situation or event affects each of those houses.
Pietro d'Abano discusses the primary modes of perfection used in geomantic interpretations with significators in his geomancy essay. Generally, except when the querent asks about a situation about a subject with no immediate connection to themselves, the querent's significator is located in the first house see Derivative house. The quesited's significator is identified based upon the focus of the query: this is based upon the relation of the query to the astrological houses. Some questions require more than two significators, such as in a query involving several primary factors e.
Queries that have a yes-or-no, or possible-impossible, answer can easily be answered with these modes of perfection.
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If the chart perfects, the answer is "yes". Otherwise, in the case of denial of perfection, "no".
The nature of the figures themselves should also be considered. If a chart perfects with negative figures, for instance, the matter will resolve but the querent may not like the result. On the other hand, if the chart does not perfect but the figures are good, then the matter will not resolve even though the querent can make do successfully without it.
In addition to modes of perfection, geomancers often took note of aspects between those figures that passed to other houses, and especially ones that made aspects to the significators. Often, when a chart denied perfection, geomancers would observe how the significators aspected each other; the aspects here retain similar meanings from astrology. Christopher Cattan advocates using the strength of the astrological houses in determining the resolution. The figures that fall in cadent houses have little to no effect, those that fall in succedent houses have a transient effect, and those that fall in angular houses have the strongest and most lasting effect upon the query.
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Other examples of astrological technique used in geomancy include assigning zodiacal rulerships to the geomantic figures, linking geomantic figures to parts of the body based on zodiacal rulers, and assigning planetary spirits, intelligences, and genii to the figures based on their ruling planets. The four binary elements of each figure allow for 16 different combinations, each called a tableau.
As each chart is generated from the four Mothers, there are a total number of 16 4 , or 65,, possible charts. Due to the mathematics of the chart, only figures that have an even number of points total can become Judges;  each of the eight Judges then has 8, charts associated with it. Traditional practitioners of geomancy use this knowledge as a type of parity check on the chart to ensure that no mistakes have been made while computing the figures.
In each chart, if all sixteen figures are observed the four Mothers, the four Daughters, the four Nieces, the Witnesses, Judge, and Reconciler , at least two of the figures must be the same. As the Reconciler is usually termed an optional figure, 16 combinations of Mother figures can yield a chart where the Mothers, Daughters, Nieces, Witnesses, and Judge are all unique.
Populus cannot appear in these charts, since mathematically it either requires two figures to be the same in order to be formed, or produces a duplicate figure when added to another figure. The sixteen combinations of Mothers, in order from the First to the Fourth Mother, are. The Arabic tradition consists of sketching sixteen random lines of dots in sand. This same process survived virtually unchanged through its introduction to Europe in the medieval era, and survives to this day in various Arabic countries.
Sikidy and other forms of African divination also follow techniques that have remained virtually unchanged. In Africa one traditional form of geomancy consists of throwing handfuls of dirt in the air and observing how the dirt falls. It can also involve a mouse as the agent of the earth spirit. In China , the diviner may enter a trance and make markings on the ground that are interpreted by an associate often a young or illiterate boy.
Similar forms of geomancy include scrying involving the patterns seen in rocks or soil. The Chinese divination practice of the I Ching has several striking similarities to geomancy. It includes a series of binary trigrams as opposed to tetragrams used in geomancy that are generated at random, the resulting figures of which are taken in combination. However, the figures are not added or reorganized as in geomancy, but are instead taken to form a single hexagram.
While there are 2 3 , or eight, trigrams, there are 2 6 , or 64, hexagrams. This yields a smaller set of resulting charts than geomancy. Vastu shastra is a traditional Indian system of architecture  which literally translates to "science of architecture. Vastu Shastra are the textual part of Vastu Vidya , the latter being the broader knowledge about architecture and design theories from ancient India. Rather, these ideas and concepts are models for the organization of space and form within a building or collection of buildings, based on their functions in relation to each other, their usage and to the overall fabric of the Vastu.
Kumalak is a type of geomancy practiced in Kazakhstan , Tuva , and other parts of Central Asia. Kumalak makes use of a three by three grid, wherein a shaman will ritually place up to 41 beads.
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These shamans use kumalak more to connect with their ancestors and spiritual guides than to obtain information through divination. Further, shamans who use kumalak must be initiated and taught how to perform the rituals of kumalak correctly. According to them, kumalak is an ancient system of knowledge reaching back to the roots of their civilization.
In Korea , this tradition was popularized in the ninth century by the Buddhist monk Toson Doseon. In Korea, geomancy takes the form of interpreting the topography of the land to determine future events and or the strength of a dynasty or particular family. Therefore, not only were location and land forms important, but the topography could shift causing disfavor and the need to relocate. The idea is still accepted in many South East Asian societies today, although with reduced force.
In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China translated feng shui as "geomancy" due to their observations of local shamans and priests manipulating the flow and direction of energy based on aesthetics, location, and position of objects and buildings. Although it stems from a distinct tradition, the term "geomancy" now commonly includes feng shui. Similarly, the introduction of a similar Indian system of aesthetics and positioning to harmonize the local energies, vastu shastra , has come under the name "geomancy".
Due to the definition having changed over time along with the recognized definition of the suffix -mancy , "geomancy" can cover any spiritual, metaphysical, or pseudoscientific practice that is related to the Earth. In recent times the term has been applied to a wide range of other occult and fringe activities, including Earth mysteries and the introduction of ley lines and Bau-Biologie.
In some fantasy literature, especially that which deals with the four classic Greek elements air, water, fire, earth , geomancy refers to magic that controls earth and sometimes metal and crystals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Geomancer disambiguation. This article is about the African and European divination technique. For the Chinese art of aesthetics, see Feng shui. For the Chinese philosophical tradition, see Wu Xing. This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. Please help by editing the article to make improvements to the overall structure. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.
See also: Geomantic figures. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved Terrestrial Astrology: Divination by Geomancy. Translated by Syring, Osmar Henry.
Verlag Heliakon. John Pemberton III. Smithsonian Institution Press. The Oracle of Geomancy. No, not exactly. Throughout the years, feng shui evolved into a body of knowledge that allows one to create the most harmonious places for any activities humans are involved in, be it in the home, office, garden, business, etc.
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