Notes : Azenegues : People who lived in the vicinity of the River Senegal. In the account of his voyages he describes 'rio chamado de Senega, Verse 7 "Passamos o limite aonde chega O Sol, que para o Norte os carros guia, Onde jazem os povos a quem nega O filho de Climene a cor do dia. Here, this strange people, washes and waters The dark Senegal in frigid currents, Where the Cape Assinarium drops its name, Calling itself instead our Cape Verde.
Notes : The Tropic of Cancer is the northern limit of the Sun's course. Helios, in Greek Mythology, was the representation of the Sun. Son of Hyperion, he was a brother to Clymene, an oceanid or the Moon, and unknowingly had a son by Clymene. He travelled over the sky every day, from east to west, in a flaming chariot pulled by four coursers, to bring light and heat to men. For when he was carried too near the earth, everything burned in the fire that came near, and, struck by a thunderbolt, he fell into the river Po.
This river is called Eridanus by the Greeks; Pherecydes was the first to name it. The Indians became black, because their blood was turned to a dark color from the heat that came near. The story is also retold in the 'Metamorphoses' : 'Sanguine tum credunt in corpora summa vocato Aethiopum populos nigrum traxisse colorem;' For the full context see Ovid Metamorphoses Liber II vs ] Called by Ptolemy, Caput Assinarium, identified by some as Cape Verde, but as indicated above, see note 1.
In Greek 'Hesperio' referred to the most western peninsulae. In Greek mythology, Hesperus Greek Hesperos is the personification of the "evening star", the planet Venus in the evening. Now Hesperus begat a daughter named Hesperis, whom he gave in marriage to his brother and after whom the land was given the name Hesperitis; and Atlas begat by her seven daughters, who were named after their father Atlantides, and after their mother, Hesperides. Others situated the gardens of Hesperides in north Africa. Notes : Santiago, or St. James, d. An apparent lapse of the poet since sources state the island to have been discovered on the 1st.
For an account by Faria y Sousa of this early sequence see note 5 below. Betwen the two lies Cape Verde, the most westerly point of Africa. The Gambia River is a major river in Africa, running 1, km miles from the Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea westward to the Atlantic Ocean at the city of Banjul. For the mention of the Mandinka, and the gold see note 3 below.
Notes : Statius Sebosus, the Roman geographer of c. Since Pliny merged the Canary isles with the Islands of Cape Verde, the latter would appear to be the Isles of Gorgades, as after the voyage of Hanno it was no longer possible to take the Canary Islands as the westernmost point in the Oikoumene, so that the name of the Islands of the Blessed shifted to the Islands of Cape Verde, see 1. For the original source of the part relating to the voyage of Hanno, and Pliny's passage referring to it , see 4.
In Greek mythology, the Gorgon was a female monster with sharp fangs and hair of living, venomous snakes. Homer mentions only one, but Hesiod cites three, saying, "Ceto bore to Phorcys The Theogony of Hesiod.
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Aeschylus says that the three Gorgons had only one tooth and one eye between them, which they swapped among themselves. Ovid : Metamorphoses ; Liber IV They say that Neptune, lord of the seas, violated her in the temple of Minerva. The literal meaning is "Lioness Mountains. In , under the patronage of King Henry the Navigator, Captain Diogo Gomes went on a voyage south, along the coast of West Africa, to the cape and estuary where the Gulf of Guinea commences. He has been regarded as the discoverer, in , of the islands in the Gulf of Guinea.
For this wide sea at length I move away From the recognised pole of Calisto, Having now passed the blazing terminus, Where the middle of the world is defined. Notes : The MweneKongo or 'Manikongo', the Portuguese version of the term, was the title of the rulers of the Kingdom of Kongo, which existed from the fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries and comprised land along the central western part of Africa.
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When he died in about , his son, Nzinga Mbemba, also known as King Afonso I, despite opposition from his half-brother, Mpanzu a Kitima see also note to verse 9 above , ruled the Kongo for over forty years. According to fable, Calisto was a nymph of Diana. Jupiter having assumed the figure of that goddess, completed his amorous desires. On the discovery of her pregnancy, Diana drove her from her train.
She fled to the woods, where she was delivered of a son. Juno changed them into bears, and Jupiter placed them in heaven, where they form the constellations of Ursa Major and Minor. This is founded on the appearance of the northern pole-star, but when Gama approached the austral pole, the northern, of consequence, disappeared under the waves. We witnessed the part less glowingly red, And, from defect of stars, less beautiful, Of the fixed Pole, where again one knows not, That another land starts, or sea ceases. Notes : The new star was the Southern Cross, seated in the southern celestial Hemisphere.
Notes : Eolo : Aeolus, Greek god of the winds. In the Odyssey Homer represents Aeolus, ruler of island of Aeolia.
He gave Odysseus a favourable wind for his voyage and a bag in which the unfavourable winds were confined, but Odysseus's careless companions opened the bag, releasing the winds and driving their ship back to shore. The Aeolian harp is named after him. Juno : In Roman religion, the chief goddess and female counterpart of Jupiter. She was identified with the Greek goddess Hera. Neptune was the god of the sea in Roman mythology, similar to the god Poseidon of Greek mythology.
She was a huntress, and a companion of Artemis. Zeus, however, enjoyed her charms; and, in order that the deed might not become known to Hera, he metamorphosed her into a she-bear. But, notwithstanding this precaution, Callisto was slain by Artemis during the chase, through the contrivance of Hera. Arcas, the son of Callisto, was given by Zeus to Maia to be brought up, and Callisto was placed among the stars under the name of Arctos. According to Hyginus, Artemis herself metamorphosed Callisto, as she discovered her pregnancy in the bath. Ovid Met.
When they asked her the reason for her visit she began "You ask me why I, the queen of the gods, have left my home in the heavens to be here? Another has taken my place in the sky!..
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If this contemptible insult to your foster-child moves you, shut out the seven stars of the Bear from your dark blue waters, repulse this constellation set in the heavens as a reward for her defilement, and do not let my rival dip in your pure flood! The benefits of civil industry, which were widely diffused from Lisbon, fortified in the Portuguese that feeling of self-esteem, which was necessary for the maintenance of their independence on so small a territory.
In the reign of Alphonso I. The romance dialect of Portugal now advanced southward into the conquered districts, and thus acquired the dignity of a prevailing national language, the formation of which proceeded from a great capital. These circumstances may serve to explain how two Portuguese poets came to be celebrated at so early a period as the reign of Alphonso I. One of these poets is Gonzalo Hermiguez, and the other Egaz Moniz; two knights descended from the most distinguished families of the country. The 6 verses of these ancient bards which have been preserved, are not wholly intelligible even to natives of Portugal.
Gonzalo Hermiguez and Egaz Moniz wrote no rhymed chronicles or legends. Their lyric effusions, which are popular songs in the proper sense of the term, are composed in short trochaic verses, precisely in the style of the well-known Spanish and Portuguese ballads of the fifteenth centuries. In the verses of Hermiguez scarcely any regular measure is discernible. These oldest relics of lyric composition in the Portuguese language seem to confirm the opinion, that the prevailing tone of romantic love, which characterised the poetry of the Spaniards and Portuguese, until the imitation of the Italian style was generally adopted, originated in Portugal.
To paint romantic despair, and all the storms of passion, combined with the deepest resignation, existing not only in fancy, but in real life, appears to have formed the poetic costume of chivalry in Portugal even earlier than in Spain.
Thus, the susceptible Egaz Moniz is said to have survived only a short time the poetic expression of the 8 anguish occasioned by the infidelity of his beloved Violante. In all literary probability, the Portuguese also preceded the Spaniards in essays in epic, or rather in historical poetry. An old Portuguese narrative in dactylic stanzas versos de arte mayor , whose unknown author related, as well as he was able, the history of the conquest of Spain by the Moors, may not be so old as it is supposed to be by Manuel de Faria y Sousa, who would refer the origin of these verses to the very period of the Arabic invasion.
They are, however, written in such antiquated language, that they may be regarded as of a date anterior to the Cantigas of Hermiguez and Moniz; and that they are the surreptitious fabrication of a later writer can scarcely be supposed, since no one could have hoped to acquire the least fame or reward by producing a counterfeit of so little value. No opinion could be formed of the merits of the whole narrative from the few stanzas, which are now extant, even though the language were more intelligible than it is.
In general all these remains of the most ancient Portuguese poetry must be considered only as first attempts.
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Throughout the whole of the thirteenth century, the poetic art in Portugal appears to have remained stationary in that degree of advancement to which it had arrived in the twelfth century. The language, however, became gradually more fixed and regular.
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In the latter half of the thirteenth century, king Diniz Dionysius of Portugal, promoted Portuguese literature in the same manner as his contemporary Alphonso the Wise, by his influence and example, improved the poetry of Castile. Diniz, like Alphonso, was himself a poet and a prose writer.
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